Taurocholate’s a modest constrictor,
In placenta and thoracic aortae.
It’s important to note,
This seems to need OATs,
As it’s inhibited by UDCA.
Where oh where do colloids go?
Is its route quite possible to trace?
Since solvent flows where solute goes,
Colloids stay in the vascular space.
Partial agonists have a normal affinity,
It’s their intrinsic efficacy that’s low.
But you can’t have a partial antagonist,
Because you can’t grade a response that’s zero.
The conversion of moles into osmoles,
Should not be tricky to do.
Glucose, for example, is a straight swap,
While NaCl dissociates into two.
At the end of the year,
When we all give our cheers,
There’s a little something to praise.
It alters redox, and leads to detox…
Let’s hear it for loperamide.
A drug that lets you postpone…
It acts on the plexus of Auerbach,
And decreases smooth muscle tone.
The bile acid taurocholate,
Helps in the absorption of fat.
But it’s also a vasoconstrictor,
& muscarinic receptors mediate that.
The neural threshold potential,
Is the voltage that opens the gates.
It is fixed at the particular voltage.
So it neither gets less nor inflates.
When haem undergoes oxygenation,
It is commonly thought of as “bound”.
But it is really a loose interaction,
So better to think it’s just hanging around.
On the back of the identification,
Of NO as the EDRF.
Hyperpolarisation was noted,
So began the hunt for the “EDHF”.
But in life things aren’t always so simple,
And to what EDHF had referred.
Was just one of numerous pathways.
Now the term “EDH” is preferred.
A ‘cardioselective beta-blocker’,
Is an unqualified boast.
For a drug to be truly selective,
Well, that’s really dependent on dose.
Resolvins are omega-3 lipids.
That resolve tissue inflammation.
And just like their omega-6 cousins,
They have vascular action.
I can tell from her eyes that she likes me.
But then again, it could be cocaine.
If we’re talking of pupil dilation,
Then the effect of both is the same.
Resolvins are omega-3 lipids,
That cause resolution of an inflammatory spell.
But like their omega-6 cousins.
They have vascular actions as well.
As you raise a wee dram at the bells,
And review the year in replays.
The alcohol is converted to aldehyde,
By alcohol dehydrogenase.
Happy New Year!
It doesn’t divide cleanly by action,
Indeed the only true ANS distinction,
In adrenergic pharmacology,
An oxymetazoline review.
A full agonist at alpha one,
But only partial at alpha two
There are 3 beta-adrenoceptors,
And once there were thought to be more.
But that proved to be a beta 1 sub-type.
Rather than the putative beta 4.
Endothelium was thought of as passive
But NO put an end to that.
Now it appears,
The adventitia interferes
With modulatory peri-vascular fat
Glycine’s an amino acid,
But it’s a neurotransmitter as well.
It increases the Cl conductance,
And has an inhibitory effect on the cell.
Oedema or altitude sickness?
I know a drug to take care of that.
But oh! How I cried!
When I realised my beer tasted flat.
Can provide good fluid balance
But the extra chloride can make you acid inside
Because it disrupts the strong ion difference
Saline is isotonic,
Perhaps that’s just as well.
Sodium and chloride will dissociate,
And so the cells won’t swell.
Nitrate action in angina
Doesn’t dilate the coronary bed
It dilates the veins
Reducing cardiac strain
Thus reduces cardiac workload instead
Angiotensin is vital in pregnancy
For blood to the fetus to be shunted
It drives the volume expansion
But its pressor responses are blunted
Drug receptor specificity,
Really depends on the dose.
A drug may well be “selective”,
But at high doses will probably hit most.
Nicotinic or muscarinic receptors,
Which is which, you need to know.
Nicotinic in muscles and ganglia,
As ion channels they promote ion flow
Heart pounding, pupils dilated,
Hairs stand up on your arm.
Did you see the girl that you fancy?
Or does that bear give you cause for alarm?
Distribution of beta-recetors:
One heart, two lungs and all that.
Just keep in mind, this is streamlined
But as good a place as any to start
Hormones don’t have agency,
They don’t act for a purpose or gain.
They simply interact with receptors,
The result is the end of that chain.
Tranporters in the membrane,
Allow ions to rearrange.
Uniports for 1, symports for 2,
And antiports for obligate exchange.
The perivascular adipose tissue,
Has an anticontractile effect.
Don’t hold your breath
For “an ADRF”
Their identities aren’t all know yet.
Nitric or nitrous oxide;
A distinction to important to let pass.
One is the EDRF,
The other is laughing gas.
Is it “lactic acid” or “lactate”,
That’s the problem we must face.
The acid donates the proton,
Lactate is its conjugate base.
Antagonists have no efficacy,
And “antagonise” is their verb.
Now agonists will do things,
But “agonise” is not the word!
Adrenaline relaxes smooth muscle.
Acetylcholine makes it tense.
This is not antagonism!
(In the pharmacological sense).
Antibiotics for the cold?
This is descending into farce.
Stop if you please,
Though not suppositories,
They may as well be stuck up your…
Antagonists have no efficacy
While partial agonists have some
If sufficiently slight
In the active site
Then an antagonist’s job can be done
“It’s a cardioselective blocker;
Can be used in asthma” you boast.
A note of concern,
“Selective” is the term:
A property dependent on dose.
Fight or flight vs. rest & digest?
Short vs. Long post ganglion?
To classify branches of the ANS,
Then look to their point of origin.
It’s true for the ANS,
As it’s true for every one.
Exceptions exist for many a rule,
But especially a rule of thumb.
Terminology in opioid pharmacology,
Is specific to what you relate.
Synthetically made; it’s an opioid.
Naturally derived; it’s an opiate.
Numerous membrane transports,
Vary cell concentration.
With teamwork quite expert,
They all work in concert,
Creating the right composition.
Adrenaline OR epinephrine;
Using both seems poorly planned.
They act adrenergic receptors,
And are produced by the ADRENAL gland.
Loops are powerful diuretics;
A really important achievement.
They hold Na in the tubule,
& prevent the creation of the medullary gradient.
“A pint of beer will dehydrate you”,
Is a common, yet incorrect thesis.
Though alcohol is a diuretic,
The volume exceeds any diuresis.
The treatment for angina pectoris.
Allow me to expand.
They have the same end, Atenolol & GTN
Matching supply by reducing demand.
Nicotinic cholinergic receptors
Located to fit their function
Ions flow when bound, so they’re found
At ganglia & the neuromuscular junction
Vascular innervation is sympathetic,
with parasympathetic on a rare few
Adrenoceptors are obviously there
but why are muscarinics there too?
Potassium loss with loop diuretics,
Has nothing at all to do.
With the inhibition of the K transport,
Because you see it with thiazides too.
Angina pectoris occurs,
When O2 delivery to the myocardium is slowed.
GTN doesn’t work by improving flow,
But by reducing cardiac workload.
The RAS acts through Ang II,
But you should know there is more.
With each broken peptide bond,
It goes up to & beyond Ang (1-7) and Ang IV.
Ang II acts through different receptors,
So here is the classification:
AT1 mediates constriction and fibrosis,
In the distribution of iv fluids,
The solute is the key.
Where the solute goes, the fluid flows,
So it’s determined by permeability.